409 Somatic Biofeedback (2 credit units)

Dysfunctional breathing habits not only compromise respiratory physiology, but they frequently have direct, immediate, and profound effects on other physiological systems, especially the musculoskeletal system: Dysponesis – misplaced muscle effort, e.g., bracing with the jaw while inhaling; Functional disorders – identifying dysponesis with symptoms like headaches, visual disturbances, dizziness, nausea, unstable gait, coughing, intestinal upset; Origins – understanding how repetitive patterns of misplaced effort become dysponetic habits; Conditioning – approaching dysponesis as a conditioned flexor-withdrawal response to painful stimuli; Trigger points – .development of painful knots of muscle in muscle groups that “splint” the injured area; EMG biofeedback – the role of relaxing unrelated muscle groups; Chronic dysfunctional breathing habit retraining – reversing abnormal EMG patterns in breathing accessory muscles, due to dysponetic postural adaption; Integrated approaches.